Quyền lực và Tiến bộ (kỳ 14 – hết)

Daron Accemoglu Simon Johnson

Nguyễn Quang A dịch

Quyenf lực và

Tài liệu Tham khảo

Acemoglu, Daron. 1997. “Training and Innovation in an Imperfect Labor Market.” Review of Economic Studies 64, no. 2: 445‒464.

Acemoglu, Daron. 1998. “Why Do New Technologies Complement Skills? Directed Technical Change and Wage Inequality.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 113, no. 4: 1055‒1089.

Acemoglu, Daron. 1999. “Changes in Unemployment and Wage Inequality: An Alternative Theory and Some Evidence.” American Economic Review 89, no. 5: 1259‒1278.

Acemoglu, Daron. 2001. “Good Jobs vs. Bad Jobs.” Journal of Labor Economics 19, no. 1: 1‒21.

Acemoglu, Daron. 2002a. “Directed Technical Change.” Review of Economic Studies 69, no. 4: 781‒810.

Acemoglu, Daron. 2002b. “Technical Change, Inequality, and the Labor Market.” Journal of Economic Literature 40, no. 1: 7‒72.

Acemoglu, Daron. 2003a. “Labor- and Capital-Augmenting Technical Change.” Journal of European Economic Association 1, no. 1: 1‒37.

Acemoglu, Daron. 2003b. “Patterns of Skill Premia.” Review of Economic Studies 70, no. 2: 199‒230.

Acemoglu, Daron. 2009. Introduction to Modern Economic Growth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Acemoglu, Daron. 2010. “When Does Labor Scarcity Encourage Innovation?” Journal of Political Economy 118, no. 6: 1037‒1078.

Acemoglu, Daron. 2021. “AI’s Future Doesn’t Have to Be Dystopian.” Boston Review, May 20, 2021. https://www.bostonreview.net/forum/ais-future-doesnt-have-to-be-dystopian/.

Acemoglu, Daron. Forthcoming. “Harms of AI.” In The Handbook of AI Governance, edited by Justin Bullock, Yu-Che Chen, Johannes Himmelreich, Valerie M. Hudson, Anton Korinek, Matthew Young, and Baobao Zhang. New York: Oxford University Press.

Acemoglu, Daron, Philippe Aghion, Lint Barrage, and David Hemous. Forthcoming. “Climate Change, Director Innovation, and the Energy Transition: The Long-Run Consequences of the Shale Gas Revolution.”

Acemoglu, Daron, Philippe Aghion, Leonardo Bursztyn, and David Hemous. 2012. “The Environment and Directed Technical Change.” American Economic Review 102, no. 1: 131‒166.

Acemoglu, Daron, Nicolás Ajzeman, Cevat Giray Aksoy, Martin Fiszbein, and Carlos Molina. 2021. “(Successful) Democracies Breed Their Own Support.” NBER Working Paper no. 29167. DOI:10.3386/w29167.

Acemoglu, Daron, Ufuk Akcigit, Harun Alp, Nicholas Bloom, and William Kerr. 2018. “Innovation, Reallocation, and Growth.” American Economic Review 108, no. 11: 3450‒3491.

Acemoglu, Daron, and David H. Autor. 2011. “Skills, Tasks and Technologies: Implications for Employment and Earnings.” Handbook of Labor Economics 4:1043‒1171.

Acemoglu, Daron, David H. Autor, David Dorn, Gordon H. Hanson, and Brendan Price. 2014. “Return of the Solow Paradox? IT, Productivity, and Employment in US Manufacturing.” American Economic Review 104, no. 5: 394‒399.

Acemoglu, Daron, David H. Autor, David Dorn, Gordon H. Hanson, and Brendan Price. 2016. “Import Competition and the Great U.S. Employment Sag of the 2000s.” Journal of Labor Economics 34:S141‒S198.

Acemoglu, Daron, David H. Autor, Jonathon Hazell, and Pascual Restrepo. 2022. “AI and Jobs: Evidence from Online Vacancies.” Journal of Labor Economics 40 (S1): S293‒S340.

Acemoglu, Daron, David H. Autor, and Christina H. Patterson. Forthcoming. “Bottlenecks: Sectoral Imbalances in the U.S. Productivity Slowdown.” Prepared for the NBER Macroeconomics Annual, 2023.

Acemoglu, Daron, Alex Xi He, and Daniel LeMaire. 2022. “Eclipse of Rent-Sharing: The Effects of Managers Business Education on Wages and the Labor Share in the US and Denmark.” NBER Working Paper no. 29874. DOI:10.3386/w29874.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Simon Johnson. 2005. “Unbundling Institutions.” Journal of Political Economy 113:949‒995.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Simon Johnson. 2017. “It’s Time to Found a New Republic.” Foreign Policy, August 15. https://foreignpolicy.com/2017/08/15/its-time-to-found-a-new-republic.

Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2003. “An African Success Story: Botswana.” In In Search of Prosperity: Analytical Narratives on Economic Growth, edited by Dani Rodrik, 80‒119. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2005a. “Institutions as Fundamental Determinants of Long-Run Growth.” In Handbook of Economic Growth, edited by Philippe Aghion and Steven Durlauf, 1A:385‒472. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2005b. “The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutional Change and Economic Growth.” American Economic Review 95:546‒579.

Acemoglu, Daron, Michael Jordan, and Glen Weyl. 2021. “The Turing Test Is Bad for Business.” Wired, www.wired.com/story/artificial-intelligence-turing-test-economics-business.

Acemoglu, Daron, Claire Lelarge, and Pascual Restrepo. 2020. “Competing with Robots: Firm-Level Evidence from France.” American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 110:383‒388.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Joshua Linn. 2004. “Market Size in Innovation: Theory and Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 119:1049‒1090.

Acemoglu, Daron, Ali Makhdoumi, Azarakhsh Malekian, and Asu Ozdaglar. Forthcoming. “Too Much Data: Prices and Inefficiencies in Data Markets.” American Economic Journal.

Acemoglu, Daron, Andrea Manera, and Pascual Restrepo. 2020. “Does the US Tax Code Favor Automation?” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, no. 1, 231‒285.

Acemoglu, Daron, Suresh Naidu, Pascual Restrepo, and James A. Robinson. 2019. “Democracy Does Cause Growth.” Journal of Political Economy 127, no. 1: 47‒100.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Andrew F. Newman. 2002. “The Labor Market and Corporate Structure.” European Economic Review 46, no. 10: 1733‒1756.

Acemoglu, Daron, Asu Ozdaglar, and James Siderius. 2022. “A Model of Online Misinformation.” NBER Working Paper no. 28884. DOI:10.3386/w28884.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Jörn-Steffen Pischke. 1998. “Why Do Firms Train? Theory and Evidence.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 113, no. 1: 79‒119.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Jörn-Steffen Pischke. 1999. “The Structure of Wages and Investment in General Training.” Journal of Political Economy 107, no. 3: 539‒572.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Pascual Restrepo. 2018. “The Race Between Machine and Man: Implications of Technology for Growth, Factor Shares and Employment.” American Economic Review 108, no. 6: 1488‒1542.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Pascual Restrepo. 2019a. “Artificial Intelligence, Automation, and Work.” In The Economics of Artificial Intelligence: An Agenda, edited by Ajay Agarwal, Joshua S. Gans, and Avi Goldfarb, 197‒236. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Pascual Restrepo. 2019b. “Automation and New Tasks: How Technology Changes Labor Demand.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 33, no. 2: 330.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Pascual Restrepo. 2020a. “Robots and Jobs: Evidence from U.S. Labor Markets.” Journal of Political Economy 128, no. 6: 2188‒2244.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Pascual Restrepo. 2020b. “Unpacking Skill Bias: Automation and New Tasks.” American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings 110:356‒361.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Pascual Restrepo. 2020c. “The Wrong Kind of AI.” Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy, and Society 13:25‒35.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Pascual Restrepo. 2021. “Demographics and Automation.” Review of Economic Studies 89, no. 1: 1‒44.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Pascual Restrepo. 2022. “Tasks, Automation and the Rise in US Wage Inequality.” Econometrica 90, no. 5: 1973‒2016.

Acemoglu, Daron, and James A. Robinson. 2006a. “Economic Backwardness in Political Perspective.” American Political Science Review 100, no. 1: 15‒31.

Acemoglu, Daron, and James A. Robinson. 2006b. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Acemoglu, Daron, and James A. Robinson. 2012. Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. New York: Crown.

Acemoglu, Daron, and James A. Robinson. 2019. The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty. New York: Penguin.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Alexander Wolitzky. 2011. “The Economics of Labor Coercion.” Econometrica 79, no. 2: 555‒600.

Acemoglu, Daron, and Fabrizio Zilibotti. 2001. “Productivity Differences.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 116, no. 2: 563‒606.

Adena, Maja, Ruben Enikolopov, Maria Petrova, Veronica Santarosa, and Ekaterina Zhuravskaya. 2015. “Radio and the Rise of the Nazis in Prewar Germany.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 130, no. 4: 1885‒1939.

Ager, Philipp, Leah Boustan, and Katherine Eriksson. 2021. “The Intergenerational Effects of a Large Wealth Shock: White Southerners After the Civil War.” American Economic Review 111, no. 11: 3767‒3794.

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Allcott, Hunt, and Matthew Gentzkow. 2017. “Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 31:211‒236.

Allcott, Hunt, Matthew Gentzkow, and Lena Song. 2021. “Digital Addiction.” NBER Working Paper no. 28936. DOI:10.3386/w28936.

Allcott, Hunt, Matthew Gentzkow, and Chuan Yu. 2019. “Trends in the Diffusion of Misinformation on Social Media.” Research and Politics 6, no. 2: 1‒8.

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Lời Cảm ơn

Cuốn sách này dựa vào hai thập niên nghiên cứu mà chúng tôi đã tiến hành về công nghệ, bất bình đẳng, và các định chế. Trong quá trình này, chúng tôi đã tích lũy một lượng nợ trí tuệ khổng lồ đối với nhiều học giả, mà ảnh hưởng của họ có thể được thấy rõ ràng suốt cuốn sách. Hai trong số đó, Pascual Restrepo và David Autor, xứng đáng sự nhắc đến đặc biệt, vì nhiều ý tưởng liên quan đến tự động hóa, các công việc mới, bất bình đẳng, và các xu hướng thị trường lao động trong cuốn sách dựa vào công trình của họ và nghiên cứu chung của chúng tôi với họ. Chúng tôi vô cùng biết ơn Pascual và David vì cảm hứng họ đã truyền cho lý thuyết và cách tiếp cận của chúng tôi, và chúng tôi hy vọng rằng họ sẽ xem việc chúng tôi vay mượn tự do các ý tưởng từ công trình của họ như hình thức tán dương cao nhất.

Một món nợ trí tuệ khổng lồ ngang thế là đối với bạn và cộng tác viên lâu dài của chúng tôi James Robinson. Công trình chung của chúng tôi với James về các định chế, xung đột chính trị, và dân chủ cho biết và thúc đẩy phần lớn phần chính trị của lý thuyết hiện thời của chúng tôi.

Công trình chung với Alex Wolitzky là một phần khác của các khối xây dựng của khung khổ quan niệm của chúng tôi trong cuốn sách này. Chúng tôi cũng dựa vào công trình chung với Jonathan Gruber, Alex He, James Kwak, Claire Lelarge, Daniel LeMaire, Ali Makhdoumi, Azarakhsh Malekian, Andrea Manera, Suresh Naidu, Andrew Newman, Asu Ozdaglar, Steve Pischke, James Siderius, và Fabrizio Zilibotti, và chúng tôi mang ơn sâu sắc các cá nhân này vì sự rộng lượng trí tuệ và sự ủng hộ của họ.

Chúng tôi cũng được truyền cảm hứng bởi và hết sức được lợi từ công trình của Joel Mokyr, mà chúng tôi mang ơn sâu sắc.

Một số người đã đọc và đã hào phóng cung cấp những bình luận xuất sắc và rất xây dựng về các bản thảo trước. Chúng tôi đặc biệt mang ơn David Autor, Bruno Caprettini, Alice Evans, Patrick François, Peter Hart, Leander Heldring, Katya Klinova, Tom Kochan, James Kwak, Jaron Lanier, Andy Lippman, Aleksander Madry, Joel Mokyr, Jacob Moscona, Suresh Naidu, Cathy O’Neil, Jonathan Ruane, Jared Rubin, John See, Ben Shneiderman, Ganesh Sitaraman, Anna Stansbury, Cihat Tokgöz, John Van Reenen, Luis Videgaray, Glen Weyl, Alex Wolitzky, và David Yang vì các gợi ý chi tiết của họ, mà đã vô cùng cải thiện bản thảo. Chúng tôi cũng hàm ơn Michael Cusumano, Simon Jäger, Sendhil Mullainathan, Asu Ozdaglar, Drazen Prelec, và Pascual Restrepo vì những thảo luận và những gợi ý rất hữu ích.

Chúng tôi cũng muốn cảm ơn Ryan Hetrick, Austin Lentsch, Matthew Mason, Carlos Molina, và Aaron Perez vì sự trợ giúp nghiên cứu xuất sắc. Lauren Fahey và Michelle Fiorenza đã luôn giúp ích không thể tin nổi. Sự kiểm tra dữ kiện tuyệt vời được Rachael Brown và Hilary McClellen cung cấp.

Nghiên cứu làm cơ sở cho cuốn sách này được hỗ trợ bởi nhiều tổ chức tài trợ khác nhau trong thập niên qua. Đặc biệt, Acemoglu biết ơn ghi nhận sự hỗ trợ tài chính cho các dự án liên quan từ Accenture, Cục Nghiên cứu Khoa học không quân, Cục Nghiên cứu quân đội, Bradley Foundation, Institute for Advanced Study Canada, Bộ môn Kinh tế học tại MIT, Google, Hewlett Foundation, IBM, Microsoft, Quỹ Khoa học Quốc gia, Schmidt Sciences, Sloan Foundation, Smith Richardson Foundation, và Toulouse Network on Information Technology. Johnson mang ơn ghi nhận sự hỗ trợ từ Sloan School, MIT.

Chúng tôi cũng biết ơn các đại lý của chúng tôi, Max Brockman và Rafe Sagalyn, vì sự hỗ trợ, hướng dẫn, và các gợi ý của họ trong thập kỷ qua và suốt quá trình cho dự án này. Chúng tôi cũng cảm ơn toàn bộ nhóm của văn phòng Brockman cũng như Emily Sacks và Colin Graham vì sự hỗ trợ to lớn. Chúng tôi đặc biệt mang ơn biên tập viên ảnh của chúng tôi, Toby Greenberg, vì sự giúp đỡ tuyệt vời.

Cuối cùng nhưng không kém phần quan trọng, chúng tôi may mắn lại được làm việc với người bạn và biên tập viên của chúng tôi John Mahaney, mà chúng tôi cũng vô cùng biết ơn. Chúng tôi cũng muốn nêu ra những cố gắng tuyệt vời của đội [nhà xuất bản] PublicAffairs, kể cả Clive Priddle, Jaime Leifer, và Lindsay Fradkoff.

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30. Qilai Shen/Bloomberg via Getty Images

31. akg-images / brandstaetter images/Votava


33. Dgies, CC BY-SA 3.0, <https://creativecommons.org/licenses /by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons; https://commons.wikimedia.org /wiki/File:Ted_Nelson_cropped.jpg

34. Benjamin Lowy/Contour by Getty Images


Ảnh do Cody O’Loughlin chụp

DARON ACEMOGLU là Giáo sư Institute về Kinh tế học tại MIT, danh hiệu giảng viên cao nhất của trường đại học này. Trong hai mươi-lăm năm qua, ông đã nghiên cứu các nguồn gốc lịch sử của sự thịnh vượng và sự nghèo đói, và các tác động của các công nghệ mới lên sự tăng trưởng kinh tế, công ăn việc làm, và bất bình đẳng. Dr. Acemoglu nhận được nhiều giải thưởng và danh dự, kể cả John Bates Clark Medal, tặng cho các nhà kinh tế học dưới bốn mươi tuổi được đánh giá có những đóng góp quan trọng nhất cho tư tưởng và hiểu biết kinh tế (2005); BBVA Frontiers of Knowledge Award về kinh tế học, tài chính, và quản lý cho các đóng góp suốt đời của ông (2016); và Giải thưởng Global Economy của Kiel Institute (2019). Ông là tác giả (với James Robinson) của The Narrow Corridor và cuốn Vì sao các Quốc gia Thất bại (Why Nations Fail) bán chạy nhất theo New York Times.


Ảnh do Michelle Fiorenza chụp

SIMON JOHNSON là Giáo sư Ronald A. Kurtz (1954) về Entrepreneurship trong Sloan School tại MIT, nơi ông cũng là người đúng đầu nhóm Global Economics and Management. Trước đó là trưởng kinh tế gia tại Quỹ Tiền tệ Quốc tế (IMF), ông đã làm việc về các khủng hoảng kinh tế toàn cầu và các sự phục hồi trong ba mươi năm. Johnson đã công bố hơn ba trăm bài có tác động-lớn trong các ẩn phẩm hàng đầu như New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, Atlantic, và Financial Times. Ông là tác giả (với Jon Gruber) của Jump-Starting America và (với James Kwak) của White House Burning và cuốn bán chạy nhất toàn quốc 13 Bankers. Ông làm việc với các doanh nhân, các quan chức được bàu, và các tổ chức xã hội-dân sự khắp thế giới.

Lời khen Quyền lực và Tiến bộ

“Mỹ (và thế giới) đang ở một ngã tư. Doanh nghiệp lớn và những người giàu đã viết lại các quy tắc của chính trị kinh tế học Hoa Kỳ kể từ các năm 1970, khiến nó bất công một cách kỳ cục hơn bao giờ hết hệt như tự động hóa và việc làm offshoring cũng đã thay đổi trò chơi. Bây giờ với AI, các nhà kinh tế học MIT trứ danh Daron Acemoglu và Simon Johnson giải thích trong cuốn sách quan trọng và sáng suốt của họ làm sao sự biến đổi công việc có thể làm cho cuộc sống còn tồi tệ hơn cho hầu hết mọi người, hay, có lẽ, tốt đẹp hơn nhiều—tùy thuộc vào các sự lựa chọn chính trị, xã hội và công nghệ chúng ta đưa ra bắt đầy ngay bây giờ. Chúng ta phải ‘ngừng bị các tỉ phú công nghệ mê hoặc,’ họ cảnh báo, bởi vì ‘tiến bộ chẳng bao giờ là tự động.’ Với các câu chuyện tiết lộ, xác đáng từ suốt lịch sử kinh tế và các ý tưởng hợp lý cho cải cách có tính hệ thống, đây là một hướng dẫn thiết yếu cho trận đánh cốt yếu này trong ‘cuộc đấu tranh một ngàn năm’ giữa những kẻ hùng mạnh và mọi người khác.”

—Kurt Andersen, tác giả của Evil Geniuses

“Một sợi chỉ mạnh mẽ xuyên suốt chuyến thăm quan hấp dẫn này về lịch sử và tương lai của công nghệ, từ cách mạng nông nghiệp thời đồ Đá Mới đến sự lên của trí tuệ nhân tạo: Công nghệ không phải là số mệnh, chẳng gì được định trước cả. Những con người, bất chấp các định chế không hoàn hảo và các xung động thường-mâu thuẫn của họ, vẫn cầm tay lái. Vẫn là việc làm của chúng ta để xác định liệu các xe chúng ta xây dựng đang hướng tới công lý hay vách đá. Trong thời đại của sự tự động hóa tàn nhẫn và sự củng cố có vẻ không dừng được của quyền lực và sự giàu có, Quyền lực và Tiến bộ là một lời nhắc nhở thiết yếu rằng chúng ta có thể, và phải, lấy lại sự kiểm soát.”

—Abhijit Banerjee và Esther Duflo, các khôi nguyên Nobel kinh tế học 2019 và các tác giả của Poor Economics and Good Economics for Hard Times

“Acemoglu và Johnson đã viết một lịch sử bao quát về hơn một ngàn năm của sự thay đổi kỹ thuật. Họ nhắm vào sự nhiệt tình vô tâm của các nhà kinh tế học cho sự thay đổi kỹ thuật và sự lãng quên méo mó của họ về quyền lực. Một cuốn sách quan trọng được mong đợi từ lâu.”

—Sir Angus Deaton, khôi nguyên Nobel kinh tế học 2015 và đồng tác giả của Deaths of Despair

“Nếu bạn chưa nghiện các cuốn sách trước của Daron Acemoglu và Simon Johnson, Quyền lực và Tiến bộ chắc chắn biến bạn thành một kẻ nghiện. Nó đưa ra các dấu xác nhận gây nghiện của họ: lối viết sinh động và một câu hỏi lớn ảnh hưởng đến cuộc sống của chúng ta. Các công nghệ mới hùng mạnh có bảo đảm làm lợi cho chúng ta? Cách mạng công nghiệp có mang lại hạnh phúc cho các cụ của chúng ta 150 năm trước, và bây giờ trí tuệ nhân tạo có mang lại cho chúng ta nhiều hạnh phúc hơn? Đọc, thưởng thức, và rồi chọn phong cách sống của bạn!”

—Jared Diamond, Tác giả được giải Pulitzer của Súng, Vi trùng, và Thép và các sách bán chạy nhất quốc tế khác

“Acemoglu và Johnson muốn nói chuyện với các chúa tể công nghệ hùng mạnh trước khi họ chuyển giao toàn bộ nền kinh tế thế giới cho trí tuệ nhân tạo. Bài học của lịch sử kinh tế là những tiến bộ công nghệ như AI sẽ không dẫn đến sự thịnh vượng một cách tự động—chúng rốt cuộc có thể chỉ làm lợi cho một elite giàu có. Hệt như các đổi mới của Thời mạ Vàng của công nghiệp hóa Mỹ đã phải bị chính trị tiến bội kiềm chế, cũng vậy, trong Thời đại Mã hóa (Coded Age) của chúng ta, chúng ta cần không chỉ các nghiệp đoàn, xã hội dân sự, và những người chống độc quyền, mà cả các cải cách lập pháp và quy chế để ngăn chặn sự đến của một panopticon mới của sự giám sát được AI-cho phép. Cuốn sách này sẽ không làm cho các tác giả được các nhà điều hành Microsoft mến mộ, nhưng nó là một tiếng gọi đánh thức mạnh mẽ cho phần còn lại của chúng ta.”

—Niall Ferguson, Milbank Family Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University, và tác giả The Square and the Tower

“Một cuốn sách bạn phải đọc: hấp dẫn, được viết tuyệt hay, và lập luận chặt chẽ, nói giải quyết một vấn đề quan trọng cốt yếu với các giải pháp mạnh mẽ. Dựa vào cả các ví dụ lịch sử và một sự đi sâu vào những cách theo đó trí tuệ nhân tạo và media xã hội đẩy tiền lương xuống và làm xói mòn dân chủ, Acemoglu và Johnson biện hộ cho một cách mạng theo cách chúng ta quản lý và kiểm soát công nghệ. Suốt lịch sử, chỉ khi các elite bị buộc để chia sẻ quyền lực thì công nghệ đã mới phục vụ các lợi ích chung. Acemoglu và Johnson cho chúng ta thấy điều này trông giống gì ngày nay.”

—Rebecca Henderson, Giáo sư John and Natty McArthur, Đại học Harvard, và tác giả của Reimagining Capitalism in a World on Fire

“Công nghệ trí tuệ nhân tạo đang chuyển động nhanh và chắc có khả năng tăng tốc. Cuốn sách mạnh mẽ này cho thấy bây giờ chúng ta cần đưa ra một số sự lựa chọn cẩn trọng để thực sự chia sẻ các lợi ích và làm giảm các hậu quả không dự định, có hại. Công nghệ là quá quan trọng để bỏ mặc cho các tỉ phú. Mọi người ở mọi nơi nên đọc Acemoglu và Johnson—và thử để có một chỗ ngồi tại bàn ra-quyết định.”

—Ro Khanna, Thành viên Silicon Valley của Quốc hội

“Cuốn sách kỳ dị này nâng cao sự hiểu biết của tôi về sự hợp lưu hiện tại của xã hội, kinh tế học, và công nghệ. Ở đây chúng ta có một sự tổng hợp của lịch sử và sự phân tích được ghép thành cặp với các ý tưởng cụ thể về tương lai có thể được cải thiện thế nào. Nó nói thẳng mà không sợ mất lòng nhưng cũng gây sự lạc quan.”

Jaron Lanier, tác giả của Ten Arguments for Deleting Your Social Media Accounts Right Now (Mười Lý lẽ cho việc Xóa các Tài khoản Media xã hội của Bạn Ngay Bây giờ)

“Hai trong số các nhà kinh tế học giỏi nhất còn sống ngày nay đang xem xét kỹ lưỡng kinh tế học của tiến bộ công nghệ trong lịch sử. Các phát hiện của họ vừa đáng ngạc nhiên vừa đáng lo ngại. Cuốn sách được viết tuyệt hay và giàu tư liệu này đánh dấu một sự bắt đầu mới trong suy nghĩ của chúng ta về chính trị kinh tế học của sự đổi mới.”

—Joel Mokyr, Giáo sư Robert H. Strotz về Nghệ thuật và Khoa học, Đại học Northwestern, và tác giả of The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress

“Cách mạng AI sẽ làm tăng năng suất của người lao động trung bình trong khi làm giảm kiếp trâu ngựa của họ, hay nó sẽ đơn giản tạo ra các chỗ làm việc bóc lột hơn và bị kiểm soát nặng nề hơn được vận hành bởi các chúa tể robot? Đó là câu hỏi đúng, và thật may Acemoglu và Johnson đã bắt đầu trả lời nó, cho nó bối cảnh lịch sử sâu sắc, kết hợp nhờ các khuyến khích kinh tế, và soi sáng một con đường tiến lên tốt hơn.”

Cathy O’Neil, tác giả của Weapons of Math Destruction và The Shame Machine

“Công nghệ đang lật ngược thế giới của chúng ta—tự động hóa các việc làm, khoét sâu bất bình đẳng, và tạo ra các công cụ giám sát và thông tin sai lệch đe dọa nền dân chủ. Nhưng Acemoglu và Johnson cho thấy nó không nhất thiết phải theo cách này. Hướng của công nghệ không phải, giống hướng gió, là một lực tự nhiên vượt quá sự kiểm soát con người. Nó tùy chúng ta. Cuốn sách nhân văn và đầy hy vọng này cho thấy chúng ta có thể lái công nghệ như thế nào để thúc đẩy lợi ích công. Những ai quan tâm về số phận của dân chủ trong một thời đại số cần phải đọc.”

—Michael J. Sandel, Giáo sư Robert M. Bass về Chính quyền, Đại học Harvard, và tác giả của The Tyranny of Merit: Can We Find the Common Good?

“Một phân tích xuất sắc về vở kịch hiện thời của sự tiến triển công nghệ versus phẩm giá con người, nơi các lực mạnh mẽ làm tăng bất bình đẳng tiếp tục hủy hoại niềm tin của chúng ta vào sự cao quý của công việc và sự không thể tránh khỏi của sự tiến bộ bình quân. Acemoglu và Johnson đưa ra một tầm nhìn mới về vở kịch này diễn tiến thế nào bằng việc nêu bật các năng lực con người và các kỹ năng xã hội. Họ am hiểu sâu sắc, các bậc thầy về tổng hợp, và say mê về việc định hình một tương lai tốt đẹp hơn nơi sự đổi mới ủng hộ sự bình đẳng.”

—Ben Shneiderman, Giáo sư Đại học Xuất sắc, Đại học Maryland, và tác giả của Human-Centered AI

“Tương lai của chúng ta là không thể tránh khỏi và được xác định bởi sự tăng tốc của các công nghệ như AI và Web3… hay chúng ta được bảo thế. Ở đây, từ hai trong các nhà kinh tế học vĩ đại nhất của thời đại chúng ta, chúng ta có sự bác bỏ dứt khoát câu chuyện tất định chủ nghĩa-công nghệ mà đã ngăn chúng ta khỏi việc xây dựng một tương lai tốt đẹp hơn trong bốn thập niên qua. Với một chút may mắn, chúng ta ta có thể nhìn lại việc này như một điểm ngoặt nơi một cách tập thể chúng ta lại lần nữa lĩnh trách nhiệm cho việc xác định thế giới chúng ta muốn công nghệ trao quyền cho chúng ta để sống cùng nhau.”

—E. Glen Weyl, trưởng nhóm nghiên cứu và nhà sáng lập, Decentralized Social Technology Collaboratory, Microsoft Research Special Projects

“Trong tổng quan xuất chúng, bao quát này về sự thay đổi công nghệ quá khứ và hiện tại, Acemoglu và Johnson muốn túm lấy vai chúng ta và đánh thức chúng ta trước khi các công nghệ kẻ-thắng-ăn-cả của ngày nay áp đặt nhiều bạo lực hơn lên xã hội toàn cầu và triển vọng dân chủ. Cuốn sách sống còn này là một thuốc giải độc cần thiết cho thuật hùng biện độc hại về sự không thể tránh khỏi của công nghệ. Nó tiết lộ realpolitik của công nghệ như một con ngựa thành Trojan ngoan cố cho quyền lực kinh tế ủng hộ các mục tiêu tìm kiếm-lợi nhuận của ít người đối với đông người. Quyền lực và Tiến bộ là bản kế hoach chúng ta cần cho các thách thức phía trước: công nghệ chỉ đóng góp cho sự thịnh vượng chung khi nó bị thuần hóa bởi các quyền, các giá trị, các nguyên tắc dân chủ, và các luật duy trì chúng trong đời sống hàng ngày của chúng ta.”

—Shoshana Zuboff, Giáo sư Emerita Charles Edward Wilson, Harvard Business School, và tác giả của The Age of Surveillance Capitalism

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