Nh?ng n??c ch?ng d?ch hàng ??u th? gi?i th?c hi?n phong t?a nh? th? nào

Yn Kh?c Chnh

Cng l phong t?a ?? ki?m sot d?ch b?nh, nh?ng l?i c th? r?t khc nhau.

Thng tin chnh quy?n New Zealand ??t c? n??c vo tnh tr?ng phong t?a ch? v?i 1 ca nhi?m COVID-19 ???c r?t nhi?u t? bo Vi?t Nam ??a tin. [1]


Nhi?u bnh lu?n c?a ??c gi? trn cc t? bo ny ??u th? hi?n s? ti?c nu?i, gi nh? n??c mnh c?ng lm g?t nh? v?y.

Tuy nhin, cch th?c c? th? New Zealand th?c hi?n phong t?a th khng th?y bo ?i qu?c doanh no ?? c?p.

Hi?n t?i, New Zealand l m?t trong s? t cc qu?c gia v?n cn duy tr chi?n l??c lo?i tr? hon ton cc ca ly nhi?m (zero covid hay cn g?i l elimination strategy).

Cc qu?c gia ny p d?ng bi?n php phong t?a nghim ng?t ?? ng?n ch?n ly nhi?m, nh?ng khng ph?i ch? v?i m?t cch m chng ta bi?t.

Ai ? nh n?y, nh?ng n?u c?n th c th? ra ngoi

Vo thng 3/2020, khi d?ch b?nh b?t ??u pht tn, chnh quy?n New Zealand ? cng b? h? th?ng c?nh bo COVID-19 v?i b?n c?p ??. [2] Trong ?, c?p ?? 4 cao nh?t t??ng ???ng v?i vi?c phong t?a khu v?c ho?c ton b? qu?c gia. ?y c?ng l c?p ?? m chnh quy?n c?a Th? t??ng Jacinda Ardern ?ang p d?ng.

? c?p ?? 4, ch? nh?ng ho?t ??ng v d?ch v? thi?t y?u ???c m? c?a, v ch? nh?ng ng??i lm trong cc ngnh ? m?i ???c ??n ch? lm. [3]

Ng??i dn ???c yu c?u ? yn trong nh, tr? khi c?n ra ngoi cho cc nhu c?u thi?t y?u c?a c nhn (essential personal movement).

Cc nhu c?u thi?t y?u ?, ngoi vi?c ?i mua th?c ph?m, tm ki?m tr? gip y t?, lm xt nghi?m COVID-19, cn c:

  • t?p th? d?c (nh? ?i b?, ch?y b?, ??p xe) trong khu v?c sinh s?ng c?a mnh
  • ??a ?n con nh? qua l?i hai bn gia ?nh b? m? s?ng ly thn/ ly d?
  • ??a th?c ph?m ??n cho ng??i khc
  • tm ng??i ??n ? chung

Theo h??ng d?n th?c hi?n c?a chnh ph?, vi?c t?p th? d?c ngoi tr?i t?t cho s?c kh?e tinh th?n c?a b?n.

T?i New Zealand, ng??i dn v?n c th? t?p th? d?c ngoi tr?i, ngay c? trong c?p ?? phong t?a cao nh?t. ?nh: VOA.

Yu c?u v?i ho?t ??ng t?p th? d?c ngoi tr?i l ph?i gi? kho?ng cch 2 mt v?i ng??i khc (tr? phi ?i cng ng??i trong nh), v khng tham gia cc ho?t ??ng ngoi tr?i c nguy c? c?n ??n cng tc c?u h? (nh? b?i l?i, l??t sng, ?i thuy?n, ?i s?n hay ?i ph??t). N?u th?y khng kh?e th khng nn ra ngoi.

Vi?c ??a th?c ph?m ??n cho ng??i khc ???c tnh l ho?t ??ng thi?t y?u, mi?n l ??m b?o kho?ng cch 2 mt, v ?? th?c ph?m tr??c c?a nh ?? trnh ti?p xc.

Nh?ng ai s?ng m?t mnh c th? tm m?t ng??i khc ho?c m?t gia ?nh khc ? chung ?? ch?m sc nhau, mi?n l trong cng th? tr?n ho?c thnh ph?. T?i ?a s? c hai gia ?nh nh? v?y ???c ghp chung ?? t?o thnh m?t c?m gia ?nh (household bubble). Nh?ng ng??i trong cng m?t c?m gia ?nh c th? t?p th? d?c ngoi tr?i cng nhau m khng c?n gi? kho?ng cch.

T? xc ??nh m?t hng thi?t y?u

? c?p ?? phong t?a cao nh?t, vi?c bun bn trao ??i nh?ng m?t hng thi?t y?u phi th?c ph?m t?i New Zealand ch? ???c th?c hi?n qua m?ng ho?c ?i?n tho?i. Ho?t ??ng giao hng ph?i ??m b?o yu c?u khng ti?p xc.

Chnh quy?n khng ??a ra danh sch c? th? nh?ng m?t hng phi th?c ph?m no l thi?t y?u. Thay vo ?, cc doanh nghi?p s? t? xc ??nh hng ha d?ch v? c?a mnh c ?ng vai tr thi?t y?u hay khng ??i v?i ng??i tiu dng trong th?i gian phong t?a. [4]

Tiu ch ?? xc ??nh l ?nh gi xem hng ha d?ch v? ? c c?n thi?t ?? ng??i dn:

  • ??m b?o s?c kh?e v an ton c?a mnh khi gin cch t?i nh
  • ??m b?o vi?c h?c t?p v lm vi?c t?i nh
  • ??m b?o gi? lin l?c v?i ng??i thn v b?n b, ??ng th?i c th? c?p nh?t tin t?c quan tr?ng

D?a trn tiu ch ?, danh sch hng thi?t y?u ny c th? bao g?m ?? lo?i t? cc s?n ph?m y t?, ?i?n gia d?ng, qu?n o, giy dp cho t?i ph? tng xe, ph? ki?n ?i?n tho?i, thi?t b? v?n phng hay sch bo, ti li?u h?c t?p.

Thay v m?t danh sch c? th?, chnh quy?n New Zealand quy ??nh ho?t ??ng thi?t y?u theo cc tiu ch. ?nh minh h?a: RNZ.

Cc ??n v? s?n xu?t thu?c ngnh cng nghi?p c? b?n (primary industry – khai thc nguyn li?u th t? t? nhin nh? tr?ng tr?t, ch?n nui, d?u m?, khai khong, v.v.) v?n ho?t ??ng.

Siu th? v cc c?a hng bn th?c ph?m v?n m? c?a. Ho?t ??ng giao nh?n th?c ph?m ti?n hnh bnh th??ng, khng c gi?i h?n theo khu v?c.

M?i gia ?nh ???c khuy?n khch ch? nn s?p x?p m?t ng??i ?i mua s?m. Ng??i dn c?ng ???c khuy?n khch, thay v b?t bu?c, ?eo kh?u trang khi ?i ra ngoi.

Vi?c ?eo kh?u trang ch? b?t bu?c khi tham gia cc ho?t ??ng c ti?p xc v?i ng??i khc (nh? lm vi?c hay mua hng trong siu th?, dng cc ph??ng ti?n giao thng cng c?ng, ng?i trong taxi, ??n cc c? s? khm ch?a b?nh, v.v.).

K? t? thng 3/2020, New Zealand ? nhi?u l?n p d?ng cc bi?n php phong t?a theo khu v?c l?n ton qu?c. [5]

Tnh ??n ngy 20/8/2021, n??c ny c g?n 3.000 ca d??ng tnh (trong ? c g?n 400 ca nghi nhi?m), v?i 26 ng??i ch?t v d?ch b?nh. [6]

Phong t?a ki?u c: m?t phin b?n khc c?a New Zealand

C?ng th?c hi?n chi?n l??c zero covid nh? New Zealand, nh?ng v?i dn s? g?p 5 l?n (25 tri?u so v?i 5 tri?u) v di?n tch h?n g?n 30 l?n, c g?p kh kh?n h?n nhi?u trong vi?c th?c thi chnh sch phong t?a. Th? ch? lin bang c?a c trao quy?n v trch nhi?m v? cho chnh quy?n cc bang trong vi?c p l?nh phong t?a. M?i bang c nh?ng quy ??nh ring, tuy nhin nhn chung khng qu khc bi?t.

Vo th?i ?i?m hi?n t?i, hai bang ?ang c chnh sch phong t?a nghim ng?t nh?t c?a c l Victoria v New South Wales. ?y c?ng l hai bang c s? ca nhi?m cao nh?t n??c.

So v?i New Zealand, cch phong t?a c?a c c kh nhi?u ?i?m t??ng ??ng. [7]

Ng??i dn c?ng ???c yu c?u ? yn trong nh, nh?ng ???c php ra ngoi th?c hi?n cc ho?t ??ng ngoi tr?i trong ph?m vi bn knh 5 km. T?i New South Wales, cc ho?t ??ng ngoi tr?i ny g?m c t?p th? d?c (exercise) v th? gin (recreation), v d? nh? ng?i ngh? mt, ?n u?ng hay ??c sch ngoi tr?i. ? nh?ng khu v?c c s? ca nhi?m t?ng cao nh? Sydney, ho?t ??ng th? gin b? c?m, ch? c t?p th? d?c ???c cho php.

Khi th?c hi?n cc ho?t ??ng ngoi tr?i, ngoi c?m gia ?nh c?a mnh, ng??i dn cn ???c php ?i cng m?t ng??i bn ngoi. Ng??i ny c th? l hu?n luy?n vin th? l?c (personal trainer) ho?c khch ch? ??nh th?m nh (nominated visitor).

T?i c, trong th?i gian phong t?a, ng??i dn c th? ch? ??nh m?t ng??i ??n th?m mnh th??ng xuyn. ?nh: EPA-EFE.

Khch ch? ??nh th?m nh c?ng l ?i?m khc c?a c so v?i New Zealand. Nh?ng ng??i s?ng m?t mnh c th? ch? ??nh m?t ng??i ??n th?m mnh th??ng xuyn. Ai ? ???c ch? ??nh l khch ??n th?m c?a m?t ng??i th khng th? lm khch ??n th?m c?a ng??i khc.

Ngoi ra t?i c, cho d phong t?a, ng??i dn v?n c th? gh th?m ng??i yu c?a mnh (intimate partners) ho?c gh th?m cc gia ?nh khc trong tr??ng h?p c?n ch?m sc ng??i t?i ?.

Trong khi ? New Zealand l khuy?n khch, ? c quy ??nh b?t bu?c ch? cho php m?t ng??i trong m?t gia ?nh ra ngoi mua s?m. N?u trong ph?m vi bn knh 5 km ng??i dn khng th? tm ???c hng ha ho?c d?ch v? mnh c?n, h? c th? ra ngoi ph?m vi ? v tm ??n n?i cung c?p hng ha d?ch v? g?n nh?t.

Vi?c ?eo kh?u trang khi ra ngoi t?i cc bang phong t?a c?a c l quy ??nh b?t bu?c (so v?i khuy?n khch c?a New Zealand). Trong th?i gian qua, hai bang Victoria v New South Wales l?n l??t p d?ng bi?n php gi?i nghim t? 9 gi? t?i ??n 5 gi? sng (chnh quy?n New Zealand ??n nay ch?a p ??t l?nh gi?i nghim).

Chnh quy?n cc ??a ph??ng c?a c c ??a ra danh sch nh?ng d?ch v? thi?t y?u ???c m? c?a, nh?ng khng c?m nh?ng ??n v? kinh doanh cc lo?i hng khng thi?t y?u ???c cung c?p v giao hng qua m?ng. [8]

Tnh ??n ngy 20/8/2021, c c h?n 41.500 ca nhi?m, v?i 971 ng??i ch?t do COVID-19. [9]

?i Loan: chu?n b? cho phong t?a t? lc ch?a c?n ??n

Cho t?i tr??c thng 5/2021, ?i Loan ch? ghi nh?n h?n 1.100 ca nhi?m v 12 tr??ng h?p t? vong do d?ch b?nh. [10] Cu?c s?ng c?a ng??i dn n??c ny v?n di?n ra bnh th??ng trong h?n m?t n?m d?ch b?nh honh hnh kh?p th? gi?i.

Nh?ng ??n gi?a thng N?m, ?i Loan ??i di?n v?i ln sng ly nhi?m t?ng cao v?i hng tr?m ca m?c b?nh m?i ngy. Chnh quy?n l?p t?c cho nng m?c ph?n ?ng ln c?p ?? 3.

Gi?ng nh? New Zealand, ?i Loan c?ng chia ra 4 c?p ?? ph?n ?ng v?i d?ch b?nh, trong ? c?p ?? 4 cao nh?t t??ng ???ng v?i vi?c phong t?a ton qu?c. [11]

M?i c?p ?? ??u c nh?ng tiu ch r rng (v? tnh ch?t cc ca v s? chm ca ly nhi?m) ?? ng??i dn bi?t v?i tnh hnh hi?n t?i, chnh quy?n s? c th? p d?ng bi?n php g.

?i?m chung trong 4 c?p ?? ph?n ?ng d?ch b?nh l yu c?u b?t bu?c ?eo kh?u trang khi ra ngoi ???ng. ? c?ng ???c ?nh gi l m?t trong nh?ng y?u t? quan tr?ng gip ?i Loan c th? nhanh chng kh?ng ch? ??t bng pht m?i.

?i Loan ki?m sot ???c ??t bng pht d?ch m?i nh?t sau khi duy tr phong t?a m?m ? c?p ?? 3 trong h?n hai thng. ?nh: New York Times.

Trong h?n hai thng p d?ng phong t?a m?m c?p ?? 3, ng??i dn v?n c th? ra ngoi mua s?m ho?c t?p th? d?c, mi?n l ??m b?o cc yu c?u ?eo kh?u trang, gi? kho?ng cch v khng t? t?p ?ng ng??i.

Cc nh hng qun ?n v?n ???c m? c?a bn ?? mang ?i cho khch. [12] Vi?c ??t hng qua m?ng khng b? c?n tr? hay gi?i h?n theo khu v?c ??a l.

?i?u ?ng l?u l chnh quy?n n??c ny ? chu?n b? k? cho tnh hu?ng phong t?a cao nh?t.

Cu?i thng 5/2021, chnh quy?n thnh ph? ?i B?c th?c hnh m ph?ng c?p ?? 4, chu?n b? s?n sng cho vi?c p d?ng cc bi?n php phong t?a ch?t. [13] Th?m ch m?t n?m tr??c ?, vo thng 4/2020, thnh ph? Tn ?i B?c ? th?c t?p phong t?a trn gi? ??nh cc ca b?nh bng pht, nh?m chu?n b? cc b??c c?n thi?t ?? ?ng c?a doanh nghi?p v tr??ng h?c, ??m b?o vi?c cung c?p l??ng th?c th?c ph?m khng b? gin ?o?n. [14]

Nh? s? chu?n b? ny v cc bi?n php ki?m sot ?ng m?c, ch? trong hai thng, ln sng d?ch m?i c?a n??c ny ? ???c ch?n ??ng m khng c?n ph?i nng c?p phong t?a ln m?c cao nh?t.

Cu?i thng 7/2021, chnh quy?n ? h? m?c c?nh bo t? c?p ?? 3 xu?ng c?p ?? 2, cho m? c?a l?i nhi?u c? s? d?ch v?. [15]

Tnh ??n ngy 20/8/2021, ?i Loan c g?n 16.000 ca nhi?m, v?i 827 tr??ng h?p t? vong. [16]

Ch thch

1.  VnExpress. (2021, August 18). New Zealand phong t?a ton qu?c v m?t ca nCoV c?ng ??ng. vnexpress.net. https://vnexpress.net/new-zealand-phong-toa-toan-quoc-vi-mot-ca-ncov-cong-dong-4342250.html

2.  About the Alert System. (2021, August 19). Unite against COVID-19. https://covid19.govt.nz/alert-levels-and-updates/about-the-alert-system/

3.  Alert Level 4. (2021, August 20). Unite against COVID-19. https://covid19.govt.nz/alert-levels-and-updates/alert-level-4/

4.  business.govt.nz. Workplace operations at COVID-19 alert levels. (n.d.). https://www.business.govt.nz/covid-19/operating-at-alert-levels/

5.  Britschgi, C. (2021, August 17). New Zealand Closes Restaurants, Schools, Vaccination Sites in Response to 1 COVID-19 Case. Reason.Com. https://reason.com/2021/08/17/new-zealand-closes-restaurants-schools-vaccination-sites-in-response-to-1-covid-19-case/

6.  COVID-19: Current cases. (2021). Ministry of Health NZ. https://www.health.govt.nz/our-work/diseases-and-conditions/covid-19-novel-coronavirus/covid-19-data-and-statistics/covid-19-current-cases

7.  McPhee, S. D. W. (2021, August 18). Compare the lockdown: Restrictions in NSW, Melbourne and New Zealand. The Sydney Morning Herald. https://www.smh.com.au/national/compare-the-lockdown-restrictions-in-nsw-melbourne-and-new-zealand-20210818-p58jrq.html

8.  Rolfe, N. B. A. B. (2021, July 18). Sydneys tough new restrictions explained: Businesses closed and travel ban. NewsComAu. https://www.news.com.au/world/coronavirus/closures/sydneys-new-retail-rules-what-can-and-cant-be-open/news-story/6d43d8e1139ff39f1ab2803acecc369d

9.  Coronavirus (COVID-19) case numbers and statistics. (2021, August 20). Australian Government Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/coronavirus-covid-19-case-numbers-and-statistics

10.  Taiwan struggles with testing backlog amid largest outbreak. (2021, May 27). AP NEWS. https://apnews.com/article/taiwan-coronavirus-pandemic-business-health-c12fc8276820e18751d85e52dcdba882

11.  Focus Taiwan – CNA English News. (2021, May 12). Taiwans four COVID-19 alert levels and how they affect you – Focus Taiwan. Focus Taiwan. https://focustaiwan.tw/society/202105120005

12.  Focus Taiwan – CNA English News. (2021b, May 23). Taipei bans all on-site dining, drinking, starting Monday – Focus Taiwan. Focus Taiwan. https://focustaiwan.tw/society/202105230008

13.  ????. (2021, May 30). COVID-19: Taipei conducts simulation for level 4 lockdown. Taipei Times. https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2021/05/31/2003758346

14.  Hui, M. (2020, April 27). Taiwan contained Covid-19, but simulated a lockdown anyway. Quartz. https://qz.com/1841177/taiwan-contained-covid-10-but-simulated-a-lockdown-anyway/

15.  Everington, K. (2021, July 24). Taiwan to lower restrictions to Level 2 on July 27. Taiwan News. https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/4255807

16.  Home. (2021). Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En

Ngu?n: https://www.luatkhoa.com/2021/08/nhung-nuoc-chong-dich-hang-dau-the-gioi-thuc-hien-phong-toa-nhu-the-nao/

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