“?o?n thi” c?a sinh viên Trung Qu?c: m?t hình th?c ph?n kháng

Tr?n Don Nho

M?t cu?c thi th? dnh cho sinh vin ? tr? thnh m?t c? h?i ?? by t? n?i th?t v?ng c?a cng chng v? cc v?n ?? x h?i ?ang gy xn xao ? Trung Qu?c trong nh?ng thng v?a qua.

Th? d? thi l nh?ng bi th? ng?n ?o?n thi b?ng Hoa ng? dnh cho sinh vin ??i h?c, do tr??ng ??i h?c Jiaotong [Giao thng = Media and Communication] Th??ng H?i t? ch?c, n?m ny l l?n th? n?m. Danh sch ng??i th?ng gi?i s? ???c cng b? vo thng 6/2022, tuy nhin, m?t s? bi th? g?i ??n ? ???c ??a ln m?ng t? thng 4/2022. Trong s? nh?ng bi th? ny, ngoi nh?ng ch? ?? chung chung lin h? ??n gi?i tnh, mi tr??ng, s? ngho ?i, v?n ?? t? do ngn lu?n, c nhi?u tc ph?m ?? c?p ??n c?n ??i d?ch v cc bi?n php phong t?a nghim ng?t c?a nh c?m quy?n Trung Qu?c ?ang ???c p d?ng trn ton qu?c nh? kh?u trang, cch ly, phong t?a; v c? chi?n tranh ? Ukraine. ??c bi?t, vo th?i ?i?m m khng gian tranh lu?n b? nh c?m quy?n Trung Qu?c thu h?p ??n t?i ?a, m?t s? bi th? hi?m hoi mang th?c x h?i r nt ? thu ht s? ch c?a ng??i dng Internet v ???c ca ng?i v s? to b?o c?a chng.



?nh ch?p mn hnh bi th? S? k c?a Tr?n Vn T?nh

(Hnh: Nguy?n Ng?c Dung)

Nh?t bo The Washington Post s? ra ngy 24/4/2022 g?i ? l hi?n t??ng b?t ??ng chnh ki?n di?n ra ngay trong lng ch? ?? chuyn ch?, qua m?t bi vi?t c?a Lily Kou, thng tn vin tr??ng th??ng tr t?i B?c Kinh, t?a ?? Student Poetry Contest in China Becomes Unexpected Outlet for Dissent[1] (Cu?c thi th? sinh vin ? Trung Qu?c tr? thnh k? h? b?t ng? by t? b?t ??ng chnh ki?n). Kou d?n pht bi?u c?a Chris Song, m?t tr? l gio s? chuyn v? d?ch ti?ng Anh v ti?ng Trung t?i ??i h?c Toronto Scarborough (Canada), cho bi?t: Th?c ?ng ng?c nhin! Ti r?t ng?c nhin khi nh?ng bi th? ???c ra ??i trong m?t mi tr??ng th?t ch?t nh? v?y, n?i m nhi?u bi th? miu t? nh?ng m?t t?i c?a x h?i, ho?c thch th?c h? t? t??ng chung c?a chnh quy?n th??ng b? ki?m duy?t. H? tm th?y trong th? m?t l?i thot m?nh m? ?? bi?u t? c?m xc c?a mnh trong nh?ng lc kh kh?n," c?ng theo Song. Nh?ng ch? m?t th?i gian ng?n sau khi ??a ln, vo ??u tu?n l? t? 18-24/4/2022, chng bi?n m?t kh?i Weibo (??=Vi Bc), trang m?ng x h?i ph? bi?n ? Trung Qu?c: ??i h?c Jiaotong ? rt xu?ng t?t c? cc bi th? c v?n ??, trong ? c nh?ng bi nh? "Tha ?ch nha (R?ng c?a b m?), "Phi t?t y?u ly hi?u (R?i tr??ng khng ph?i l ?i?u thi?t y?u) v "S? k v ?ng h?n ph?n bnh lu?n c?a h?u h?t ng??i dng. Tuy nhin, nh?ng ng??i s? d?ng Internet ? l?p t?c ch?p ?nh mn hnh (screenshots) cc bi th?, k? c? hnh ?nh c?a cc phin b?n vi?t tay c?a chng v ti?p t?c ph? bi?n trn m?ng. Khi ???c nh?ng ng??i dng Internet th?c m?c v? s? bi?n m?t c?a cc bi th?, nh tr??ng khng tr? l?i th?ng cu h?i, m ch? ni m?t cch m?p m? qua m?t vi dng ??a ln m?ng hm 21/4, r?ng: "C?m ?n cc b?n ? ?ng h? v ch . Th? lm d?u tri tim v mang l?i bnh yn cho con ng??i. Chng ti tin r?ng trong lnh v?c thi ca, t?t c? chng ta s? ?i xa h?n." D?u v?y, c?ng c m?t t bi th? khc th?m d cc ch? ?? nh?y c?m d??ng nh? ? thot kh?i s? ki?m duy?t. Ch?ng h?n bi "Linguists" (Nh?ng nh ng? h?c) m t? m?t th? gi?i ?n ni hng hai (doublespeak)[2] ki?u George Orwell, n?i s? v?n t? v?ng c?a c? dn b? h?n ch? v khi ni, h? ni y nh? th? nh?ng con c m th?m "th?i bong bng n??c."

Tuy gi?ng ?i?u nh?ng bi th? trng c v? n?i lo?n, nh?ng theo Chris Song, t??ng ch?ng ??i nh c?m quy?n c l? khng n?m trong ??u c cc nh th?. M?t sinh vin c th? l?t vo danh sch s? k?t ? ni chuy?n v?i phng vin The Washington Post, nh?ng r?i sau ? rt l?i bnh lu?n c?a mnh, v lo ng?i s? b? nh c?m quy?n lm kh d? khi xu?t hi?n trn ph??ng ti?n truy?n thng n??c ngoi.

Xin l?n l??t gi?i thi?u b?n bi th?:

- Tha ?ch nha c?a Hong Di?m Ph??ng

- Kyiv c?a Kh?u Th?c

- Phi t?t y?u ly hi?u c?a Chu H?o Nguy?t

- S? k c?a Tr?n Vn T?nh

Ngoi ph?n nguyn b?n Hn v?n, chng ti km theo b?n phin m Hn-Vi?t, b?n d?ch ti?ng Anh tm th?y trn m?ng v cu?i cng l ph?n d?ch ti?ng Vi?t; ph?n ny v?a d?a theo nguyn b?n ch? Hn v?a d?a theo b?n d?ch ti?ng Anh.

Tha ?ch nha

Bi th? d?a vo cu chuy?n m?t ph? n? tm th?n ?? tm (8) ??a con ? T? Chu, Giang T, Trung Qu?c, b? ch?ng xi?ng trong nh kho nhi?u n?m, lan truy?n trn m?ng x h?i Trung Qu?c t? thng 1/2022, gy ra ln sng ph?n n? hi?m hoi trong cng chng.[3]


Tha ?ch nha


tha ?ch nha


th? th? gi?i th??ng t?i thy nh??c ?ch nha


t??c d t??c b?t l?n gi v v?ng ?ch kh? n?n


s? h?u nha x? phi li nha sng


ch? tiu nh?t k nh? quang


tha ?ch nha


th? th? gi?i th??ng t?i kin ng?nh ?ch nha


t?c s? b? ?? l?c


nh?ng kh?n gi?o tr? t?a lin


kh?n gi?o tr? nh?t c dn t?c ?ch l??ng tm


Hong Di?m Ph??ng

(??i h?c S? Ph?m Qu?ng Ty)

Her teeth[4]

Her teeth

The most fragile in the world

Cannot chew off the misery she did not deserve

It only takes one slap

For the gum to shoot them all out

And her teeth

Also the strongest

Even after the slap

Remain on the iron chain

Biting this nations heart

Huang Yanfang

R?ng m?

r?ng m?

m?ng manh nh?t tr?n gian

ch?ng th? nhai ???c n?i b?t h?nh phi l

ch? m?t ci tt vo m?t

l v?ng h?t ra ngoi

nh?ng r?ng m?

c?ng kh?e nh?t tr?n gian

d c ?nh v?ng ra

v?n cn g?n ch?t vo xch s?t

c?n nt l??ng tm t? qu?c


Trong lc nh c?m quy?n Trung Qu?c khng ln n (khng nh?ng th?, cn ?ng h?) cu?c xm l?ng Ukraine c?a Nga, th bi Kyiv cho th?y tc gi? ch?n ??ng v? pha Ukraine:


C? Ph?[5]


k? t? l?c h?, b?ng lnh

???? ???

m? s?c th?ng kh?i t?i ??i mn

? ??

ha qu?ng tr??ng

? ??? ? ? ? ????

vi?n ngo?i nhn mn cu?ng hoan nh? c? c?u t? t?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ????

vu th? pho ??n t?i thanh thanh ngo?n ti?u trung ph toi

???????? ? ? ?

??n phi?n xuyn qu ng s? i gi? ?ch ??u l


Kh?u Th?c


Chess pieces are placed, cold

Dusk light rises to the gate

And the square

In the distance, some people revel as if in an ancient ritual

In fits of laughter, a bomb explodes,

Shrapnel shoots through my lovers skull

Qiu Shuo


Nh?ng qun c? ??t xu?ng, l?nh tanh

Tr?i chi?u r?i ngoi c?ng

Qu?ng tr??ng xa

Ng??i ng??i hoan ca y nh? bu?i t? l? x?a

Gi?a nh?ng trng c??i, bom n?

??n t?ng m?nh xuyn th?ng s? ng??i yu

Phi t?t y?u li hi?u

Trong b?i c?nh bng pht c?a Covid-19, qua ?, s? b?ng bt thng tin c?ng nh? s? ki?m sot dich b?nh kh hi?u v th??ng mu thu?n c?a nh c?m quy?n nh? l?nh phong t?a nghim ng?t ? h?n 30 t?nh v khu v?c c?a ??t n??c khi?n nhi?u c? dn ? b? m?c k?t ho?c b? b? qun t?i nh m khng c ?? th?c ?n ho?c khng th? tm ki?m s? tr? gip y t?. Hai bi n?i b?t trong s? ? l Phi t?t y?u li hi?u v S? k.


Phi t?t y?u li hi?u

?? ?? ?????????

Th?t t?p qu?i ho nh t? kha ton th? t?t y?u ?ch ba

???? ??? ????

na t?n th? nh?t ?a phi dim th??ng ?ch vn ni

???? ?? ?

ng? h?i nh?t ??i b?n l?t ni


b? l?c di?p lm th??ng ??u pht ni

??????? ????? ????????

t?a l??ng c ti?u th hn hn d?c th?y ?ch hi?u xa kh? khin lnh nh?t bn ?ch th? ni


v?n nh?t gi tr??ng chi?u phi?n b? truy?n thnh kinh ?i?n ni

????????????? ??????

v?n nh?t gi ??i b?n l?t phn c?p li?u nh?t c t?n lm b?ng h?i ?ch ??ng h?c ni

? ??????????

v?n nh?t lm th?p ?ch th? nh?t c thi nhn ni


v?n nh?t gi b?i t? t?u th? tha ni


d?ch tnh nh??ng nh?t thi?t ? bi?n thnh li?u chnh khm nguy t?a ?ch t?t y?u


ai nhn gian th? do v s? c phi t?t y?u t? thnh ?ch nha.


Chu H?o Nguy?t


(H?c vi?n M? thu?t Trung ??ng)

Unnecessary exiting campus[7]

Internship, doctor’s appointment, IELTS courses, should be necessary, right?

So how about squatting and waiting for cloud above cornices?

hiding a bag of chestnuts?

getting hair drizzled by falling leaves?

riding schoolbus for two somniferous hours to hold hands with my significant other?

What if this photo might be passed around as a legend?

What if this bag of chestnut could be shared with a classmate on the verge of breakdown?

What if the one got drizzled turned out to be a poet?

What if he was the one of my life?

The pandemic makes everything a solemn straight-up sitting necessity

Eh, life is made up of countless cases of unnecessity

Zhu Haoyue

R?i tr??ng khng ph?i l ?i?u thi?t y?u

Ph?i ch?ng th?c t?p, ghi danh, luy?n thi Anh v?n[8] m?i l ?i?u thi?t y?u?

Cn ng?i x?m trn mi hin ??i m?t v?n my tri th th? no?

che gi?u m?t ti h?t d? th th? no?

??m mnh trong c?n m?a l r?i ??y tc th th? no?

hai ti?ng ??ng h? ngi ng? trn xe but tr??ng mong n?m tay b?n tnh th th? no?

N?u chuy?n nhau t?m ?nh ny nh? m?t tc ph?m kinh ?i?n th sao?

n?u chia ti h?t d? ny cho m?t ng??i b?n h?c ?ang trn ? suy s?p th sao?

m?t nh th? b? ??t m?a th sao?

mi mi ch? l h?n ta thi th sao?

C?n d?ch qu? ? lm m?i th? thi?t y?u tr? thnh c?ng th?ng

Chao i, nhn lo?i ??y d?y nh?ng ?i?u khng thi?t y?u!

Phi t?t y?u ly hi?u, ???c ??a ln m?ng Weibo ngy 12/4, l?p t?c ???c truy?n ?i m?t cch nhanh chng, thu ht ngay s? ch c?a cng dn m?ng (netizens). Ton bi th? l nh?ng cu h?i v? cc bi?n php h?n ch? sinh vin ??n k tc x c?a h? ngo?i tr? cc ho?t ??ng g?i l thi?t y?u (essential) nh? th?c t?p, ghi danh hay h?c Anh v?n. Nhi?u ng??i ? nu ln nh?n ??nh, Ci ng?t ngo c?a cu?c s?ng ha ra bao g?m r?t nhi?u nh?ng ?i?u ???c xem nh? l khng-thi?t-y?u. Nh?ng ng?t ngo ny lm tan long ?i bi?t bao ?i?u cay ??ng. M?t ng??i s? d?ng bt danh Zhuang Wuxie c h?n 1,7 tri?u ng??i theo di trn di?n ?n ny cho bi?t l ? khc n?c n? khi ??c bi th? ny, khen, B?n tr? qu ngoan. Khng ch?i ch?, khng vi?t t?t, khng s? hi." Theo nh th? L?u ch Thi?n (Liu Yishan/???), nguyn ph ch? t?ch h?i nh v?n t?nh H? B?c, ?y l m?t bi th? hi?n ??i, vi?t m khng c?n ??n nh?ng hm g su s?c, ch? ??n gi?n d?a trn khi ni?m khng-thi?t-y?u v?n n?m trong t? t??ng c?a nh?ng sinh vin s?ng trong th?i ??i d?ch. Ng??i ??c c th? ??c nh?ng bi th? nh? th? m?t cch khng- thi?t-y?u, theo ng.[9]

S? k

N?u Phi t?t y?u ly hi?u ch? nh?m by t? m?t l?i than van, th S? k ng?n h?n, hi?n th?c h?n, nh?ng c?ng hm sc h?n, ch?a ??ng m?t l?i t? co tr?c ti?p g?i ??n nh c?m quy?n Trung Qu?c.

? ?

S? k


l??ng nin ti?n

? ? ? ???

nh?t v? y sinh t? li?u

? ? ? ?

t? h? xuy tiu

?? ? ?

d? tc k? ni?m,

?? ?

l??ng nin h?u

?? ? (?)? ??

nh?t v? h? s? t? li?u,


v ng? kh? t?


d? tc vong kh??c

?????! ? ?!

B?ch thi! Bao h?o! bao h?o!

?? ? ? ? ? ?? ??

Ti?u Xuyn s?n kh??c nhi?t no, bnh m?ng khi th?u

?????? ?? ???

cu?ng nhn t?n t?i ?i?n no ti?n khn li?u bn d?

??, ? ? ????

minh thin, tha ti?p ?o li?u th?nh gi?n

? Q ? ? ? ? ?

A Q d? Ng m k?t hn,

???? ???

Sinh h? Kh?ng M?nh ?ch t? tn.


Tr?n Vn T?nh

Records of the Grand Historian[10]

Two years ago,

a doctor died,

writing down ‘whistle-blowing’

for commemoration.

Two years later

a nurse died,

with nothing worth writing,

for obliviation.

‘Bok Choy! Wrap it up well! Wrap it up well!’

Little Shuan amidst bustling, coughed his life out.

The Madman rests his face in front of the computer for half a night,

the next day, he received an invitation:

Ah Q married Amah Wu,

begetting descendants of Confucius and Mencius.

S? k

hai n?m tr??c

m?t bc s? ch?t

ti vi?t Th?i – Ci[11]

?? t??ng ni?m chng

hai n?m sau

m?t y t ch?t

ti ch?ng c ch?

?? lng qun nng

Th?t h?t bi?t! ??y th?t k?! ??y th?t k?![12]

Gi?a ?n o huyn no, th?ng Thuyn[13] ho r? r??i.

ng??i ?in[14] dn m?t vo my vi tnh ??n n?a ?m

hm sau nh?n ???c thi?p m?i

?m c??i AQ v V Ng[15]

s?n sinh ra con ?n chu ??ng Kh?ng-M?nh.

"S? k" m? ??u v?i ci ch?t m?t bc s? ? V? Hn, b?ng cch ch?i ch?: xuy tiu ngh?a l th?i ci, th?c ra, ?? m ch? t? ng? ti?ng Anh, whistleblower, c ngh?a l ng??i ti?t l? thng tin m?t, nh?m ca ng?i bc s? L V?n L??ng (???), m?t trong nh?ng ng??i ??u tin bo ??ng v? c?n ??i d?ch Covid-19 do con siu vi xu?t pht t? ch? h?i s?n V? Hn gy ra h?i cu?i thng 12/2019. V nh?ng ti?t l? ? m v? bc s? ny ? b? c?nh st Trung Qu?c b?t v t?i pht tn ci ???c g?i l ??a thng tin sai l?ch. Ci ch?t c?a ng ? tr? thnh m?t ?i?m t?p h?p ?? ng??i ta th?o lu?n v? s? c?n thi?t c?a t? do ngn lu?n v s? minh b?ch, c th? gip th? gi?i ch?n ??ng ngay t? ??u s? ly lan c?a c?n ??i d?ch. Ti?p ?, bi th? m ch? m?t c y t ? Th??ng H?i ? ch?t v m?t c?n hen suy?n sau khi b?nh vi?n c?a c t? ch?i ?i?u tr? cho c v cc bi?n php phong t?a. Trong ph?n sau c?a bi th?, tc gi? ? s? d?ng nh?ng nhn v?t trong ba tc ph?m c?a L? T?n, D??c, Cu?ng nhn nh?t k v A Q chnh truy?n, nh? ?n d?, m ch? tnh hnh t?i t? hi?n nay c?a Trung Qu?c d??i ch? ?? ton tr? c?a T?p C?n Bnh, ch?ng khc g hnh ?nh Trung Hoa nh?ng n?m ??u th? k? 20, m?t ??t n??c l?c h?u, m tn d? ?oan, cho con ?n bnh bao ??p mu ng??i m?i ch?t ?? ch?a b?nh.


S? ra ??i c?a nh?ng dng th? b?t th??ng ? cho th?y s? b?t ??ng chnh ki?n xu?t hi?n ngy cng tr? nn r nt ? cng chng Trung Qu?c khi h? khng cn kin nh?n ch?u ??ng chnh sch zero-covid nghim ng?t c?a nh c?m quy?n. Vo gi?a thng 4/2022, c?nh st Th??ng H?i ? ?ng c?a 30 nhm tr?c tuy?n v ?i?u tra ho?c tr?ng ph?t h?n 20 c nhn v ? lan truy?n "tin ??n lin quan ??n Covid." Cc b?c ?nh ??a ln m?ng cho th?y m?t t?m bi?n bo pht sng ? B?c Kinh c?nh bo ng??i dn khng nn "by t? ki?n tr?c tuy?n" v? chnh sch ch?ng Covid c?a chnh ph?. D?u v?y, hm 22/4/22, nh?ng ng??i dng Internet ? l?n t nh?ng n? l?c chnh th?c ki?m duy?t m?t video di su pht c t?a ?? "Pht bi?u thng T?" ghi m l?i c? dn ? Th??ng H?i van xin th?c ph?m hay c?u c?u s? gip ?? cho nh?ng thn nhn b?nh ho?n c?a h?.

?n c?u khng th? im l?ng mi!

?? ? ??? = Trung Qu?c nhn, t?nh lai ba!

(H?i ng??i Trung Qu?c, hy mau th?c t?nh)


(Hnh minh h?a l?y t? https://gnews.org/zh-hans/2066100/)

Xin ch?m d?t bi vi?t b?ng l?i cm ?n g?i ??n c Nguy?n Ng?c Dung, ng??i ? gip tm ki?m nguyn b?n nh?ng bi th? b?ng ch? Hn trn m?ng, chuy?n qua Hn-Vi?t v gp v? m?t s? t? ng? ??c bi?t c tnh cch ?n d?, m n?u khng n?m v?ng th khng th? hi?u tr?n v?n ngh?a c?a cc bi th?.

Tr?n Don Nho

(Boston, thng 5/2022)

[1] Lily Kuo, Student poetry contest in China becomes unexpected outlet for dissent


[2] doublespeak c?ng nh? doublethink, theo George Orwell trong 1984, c ngh?a l th?c r s? th?t hon ton trong lc v?n ni nh?ng ?i?u b?a ??t m?t cch c?n th?n, gi? ??ng th?i hai ki?n tri ng??c h?n nhau, bi?t chng l mu thu?n v v?n tin t??ng ? c? hai.

[3] Xem: https://kenh14.vn/nguoi-phu-nu-tam-than-de-8-con-bi-chong-xich-co-nhot-trong-nha-kho-canh-sat-dieu-tra-moi-phat-hien-bi-kich-dang-thuong-suot-24-nam-20220307004553449.chn

[4] Chris Song d?ch ra ti?ng Anh. D?n theo Lily Kuo

[5] ?? = C? Ph?, phin m t? ch? Kyiv, th? ? n??c Ukraine.

[6] Chris Song d?ch ra ti?ng Anh. D?n theo Lily Kuo.

[7] Translator: Zhiyiwang (??? = Ch Ngh?a V??ng). Xem:


[8] ??? = nh t? kha = IELTS (The International English Language Testing System)

[9] Zhan Ju Xia Yu, College students’ "non-essential departure" poem became popular, with a full text of 146 words


[10] Translator: Zhiyiwang. Xem:


[11] xuy tiu (? ?), th?i ci, m?t hnh th?c ch?i ch? b?ng cch s? d?ng t? ng? ti?ng Anh whistleblower c ngh?a l ng??i ti?t l? thng tin m?t.

[12] T?m d?ch cu B?ch thi! Bao h?o! bao h?o! (C?i tr?ng! Hy b?c k?! Hy b?c k?) c tnh cch ta thn.

[13] ? ? = Little Shuan (m Pin Yin) = b Thuyn. C?u b Thuyn l con trai c?a hai v? ch?ng lo Hoa trong truy?n Thu?c (D??c/?) c?a L? T?n (??), b? lao ph?i ???c cha m? m tn d? ?oan mua cho ci bnh bao t?m mu c?a ng??i v?a b? hnh quy?t, v?i ni?m tin r?ng ?n bnh ny xong s? kh?i b?nh. Cu th? ch? Hn ???????????? l nguyn v?n m?t cu trong truy?n ng?n Thu?c, ch? b? ?i tr? t? ? (d). Hai ch? bao h?o (? ?) trong cu th? tr??c ?, nh th? c?ng l?y t? trong trch ?o?n ny. Bao ch? ci bnh bao ??p mu; bao h?o v?a c ngh?a l gi cho ch?t, v?a ?? m ch? s? b?ng bt, gi?u gi?m.

[14] Hai ch? cu?ng nhn (?? = ng??i ?in), nh th? l?y t? Cu?ng nhn nh?t k ( ????) = Nh?t k ng??i ?in, c?ng c?a L? T?n. ?y l truy?n ng?n ??u tay c?a L? T?n d?a theo truy?n ng?n Nh?t k c?a m?t ng??i ?in c?a Nikolai Gogol m?t nh v?n v nh vi?t k?ch n?i ti?ng ng??i Ukraine – m L? T?n r?t yu thch.

[15] A Q (? Q) v Ng m (? ?) (hay V Ng) l hai nhn v?t trong A Q chnh truy?n (?Q??) c?a L? T?n.

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